Chapter 29

Suspension System Principles
Suspension Force
Unsprung Weight
Wheel Unit Location
Yaw, Pitch, and Roll
Types of Body Construction
Suspension System Components
Shock Absorbers
Arms and Rods
Steering Knuckle
Ball Joints
Types of Suspension Systems
Independent Suspension
Front Suspension
Rear Suspension
Adaptive Air Suspension
Computer-Controlled Suspension
Wheel Alignment Fundamentals
Steering Axis Inclination
Included Angle
Scrub Radius
Toe-in and Toe-out
Toe-out on Turns
Turning Radius
Thrust Angle, Centerlines, and Setback (Tracking)
Ride Height
Types of Wheel Alignment
Performing Wheel Alignment
Common Issues
Diagnosing a Suspension System
Testing Components of Electronically Controlled Suspension Systems Using a Scan Tool
Unloading a Suspension for Measuring Play: Loaded Lower Ball Joint
Unloading a Suspension for Measuring Play: Loaded Upper Ball Joint
Diagnosing Suspension Noise
Body Sway
Ride Height
Inspecting the Shock Absorbers
Maintenance and Repair
Removing, Inspecting, and Installing Stabilizer Components
Removing and Inspecting Sway Bar Links
Removing and Replacing Shock Absorbers
Removing, Inspecting, and Installing SLA Suspension System Coil Springs and Spring Insulators
Removing, Inspecting, and Installing the Steering Knuckle Assembly
Removing and Inspecting Upper and Lower Control Arms and Components
Removing, Inspecting, and Installing Upper and Lower Ball Joints
Lubricating Suspension and Steering Systems
Removing, Inspecting, and Installing the Strut Cartridge or Assembly
Removing, Inspecting, and Installing a Strut Coil Spring, Insulators, and the Upper Strut Bearing Mount
Removing, Inspecting, and Replacing Leaf Springs
Removing, Inspecting, and Installing Strut Rods and Bushings
Removing, Inspecting, Installing, and Adjusting Torsion Bar Suspension
Performing a Pre-alignment Inspection
Performing Four-Wheel Alignment
Checking Toe-Out on Turns
Checking SAI and Included Angle
Checking Rear Wheel Thrust Angle
Checking Front and/or Rear Cradle Alignment