Chapter 51

Title
Introduction
Composition of Air
Sources of Emissions
Regulated Emissions
Types of Emissions
Water Emissions
Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Hydrocarbon Emissions
Carbon Monoxide Emissions
Oxides of Nitrogen Emissions
Sulfur Dioxide Emissions
Particulate Emissions
Smog Emissions
Controlling Emissions
Combustion
Combustion Chamber Design
Stoichiometric Ratio
Controlling Air–Fuel Ratios
Closed Loop
Precombustion/Postcombustion Treatment
Emission Control Systems
Catalytic Converters
Crankcase Emission Control
Types of PCV Systems
Common PCV Failures
Exhaust Gas Recirculation System
Purpose and Operation Of EGR Systems
Types of EGR Valves
Vacuum Controls in the EGR System
Electronic Controls in the EGR System
Computer Monitoring Strategies
Common EGR Failures
Evaporative Emission Control
Fuel Storage
Charcoal Storage
Vacuum Controls in the EVAP System
Electronic Controls in the EVAP System
Computer Monitoring Strategies in the EVAP System
Common EVAP System Failures
Secondary Air Injection
Secondary Air Injection Types
Common Air Injection System Failures
Heated Air Intake Systems
Diagnosis Of Emission Control Systems
Diagnosing EVAP System–Related Concerns
Diagnosing Abnormal Exhaust
Diagnosing PCV-Related Concerns
Diagnosing EGR-Related Concerns
Diagnosing Concerns Related to the Secondary Air Injection System
Emission Testing
Setting Up a Gas Analyzer
Catalytic Converter Testing
Inspecting and Servicing the PCV System
Inspecting and Servicing the EGR System
Inspecting and Servicing the EGR Sensors
Inspecting and Servicing the Secondary Air Injection System
Inspecting and Testing Electrical Components of Secondary Air Injection Systems
Inspecting and Servicing the Hoses of the EVAP System