Chapter 31

Principles of Hydraulics
Hydraulic Pressure and Force
Hydraulic Components
Brake Fluid
Master Cylinder
Single-Piston Master Cylinder
Tandem Master Cylinder
Quick Take-up Master Cylinders
ABS Master Cylinders
Reservoirs and Float Switches
Brake Pedals
Types of Divided Hydraulic Systems
Brake Lines and Hoses
Brake Hoses
Hydraulic Braking System Control
Proportioning Valves
Metering Valves
Pressure Differential Valve
Combination Valve
Electronic Brake Proportioning
Brake Warning Light and Stop Lights
Brake Warning Light
Stop Lights
Power Brakes
Vacuum Booster
Dual-Diaphragm Boosters
Hydraulic Brake Booster
Electrohydraulic Braking
Diagnosis: Power Booster Testing in the EHB System
Brake Fluid Handling
Brake Fluid Testing
Maintenance and Repair
Performing Manual Bleeding
Performing Pressure Bleeding
Performing Vacuum Bleeding
Finishing the Bleeding Process
Flushing Process
Inspecting Brake Pedal
Measuring Brake Pedal Free Play
Measuring Brake Pedal Travel
Inspecting Master Cylinder
Master Cylinder Service and Bench Bleeding
Measuring and Adjusting Master Cylinder Pushrod Length
Diagnosis: Overview
Diagnosing Power Brake Systems
Checking Vacuum Supply to Vacuum-Type Power Booster
Checking Vacuum-Type Power Booster Unit for Leaks and Inspecting the Check Valve
Inspecting and Testing a Hydraulically Assisted Power Brake System
Inspecting Brake Lines and Hoses
Replacing Brake Lines, Brake Hoses, Fittings and Supports
Brake Line Flaring
Diagnosing Brake Warning Lamp
Checking the Brake Warning Light System
Checking the Parking Brake and Indicator Light System
Inspecting and Maintaining Parking Brakes
Diagnosing Stop Light
Diagnosing Hydraulic Concerns
Testing Pressure Differential Valve